This Research and Analyst Note provides an overview of the evolution of various forms of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning solutions and their current implementation in different companies across various industry verticals.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already pervasive in our lives, albeit invisible to most people. The custom search engine results, social media alerts and notifications, the e-commerce recommendations and listings, all have strong AI engines at the backend. AI is fast turning out to be the key utility of the technology world, and like all utilities it will enliven most inert objects, much as electricity did a century ago. Everything that we formerly electrified, we will now cognitize.
After decades of false starts, Artificial Intelligence is on the verge of a breakthrough, with the latest progress propelled by Machine Learning – the subset of AI that includes abstruse techniques that enable machines to improve at tasks through learning and with experience. Technology giants and digital natives are investing in and deploying the technology at scale.
Key Artificial Intelligence Forms and Methodologies
Current AI Solutions Adoption Across Various Industry Verticals
Although in its current nascent stage, the rapid development and impending AI-led technology revolution is expected to impact all the industries and players (both big and small) in the respective ecosystem/value chains. We are already witnessing examples of how AI-powered new entrants are able to take on incumbents and win (as Uber and Lyft have done to the cab-hailing industry).
Currently deployed key AI based solutions (and industry verticals) include:
- Predictive Analytics, Diagnostics and Recommendations (Financial Services, Digital Media, E-Commerce, etc.)
- Chatbots and Intelligent Voice Assistants (Banks, Healthcare, Travel, etc.)
- Image Recognition, Processing and Diagnostics (Healthcare, Financial Services, etc.)
Predictive Analytics, Diagnostics and Recommendations
Predictive Analytics has been mainstream for a while, but deep learning changes and improves the whole game. Predictive analytics can be described as the "everywhere electricity" - it is not so much a product, as it is a new capability that can be added to all the processes in a company. Be it a national bank, a key supplier of raw material and equipment for leading footwear brands or a real estate company, various players across every industry vertical are highly motivated to adopt AI-based predictive analytics because of proven returns on investment.
Japanese insurance firm Fukoku Mutual Life Insurance is replacing its 34-member strong workforce with IBM’s Watson Explorer AI. The replaced AI system calculates insurance policy payouts, which as per the firm’s estimates is expected to increase productivity by 30% and save close to GBP 1 million a year.
Be it user-based Collaborative Filtering used by Spotify and Amazon to content-based Collaborative Filtering used by Pandora or Frequency Itemset Mining used by Netflix, digital media companies have been using various machine learning algorithms and predictive analytics models for their recommendation engines.
In E-commerce, with thousands of products and multiple factors that impact their sales, an estimate of the price to sales ratio or price elasticity is difficult. Dynamic price optimization using machine learning - correlating pricing trends with sales trends using an algorithm, then aligning with other factors such as category management and inventory levels – is used by almost every leading e-commerce player from Amazon to Blibli.
Chatbots and Voice Assistants
Chatbots have evolved primarily on the back of Internet Messenger platforms, and have hit an inflection point in 2016. As of mid-2016, more than 11,000 Facebook Messenger bots and 20,000 Kik bots had been launched. As of April 2017, 100,000 bots were created for Facebook Messenger alone in the first year of the platform. Currently, chatbots are rapidly proliferating across both the consumer and enterprise domains, with capabilities to handle multiple tasks including Shopping, Travel Search and Booking, Payments, Office Management, Customer Support, Task Management, etc.
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) launched Luvo - a natural language processing AI bot which answers RBS, Natwest and Ulster bank customer queries and perform simple banking tasks like money transfers. If Luvo is unable to find the answer it will pass the customer over to a member of staff. While RBS is the first retail bank in the UK to launch such a service, others such as Sweden's SwedBank and Spain's BBVA have created similar virtual assistants.
The National Health Services (NHS) in UK has implemented an AI-powered chatbot on the 111 non-emergency helpline. Being trialled in North London, its 1.2 million residents can opt for a chatbot rather than talking to a person on the 111 helpline. The chatbot, encourages patients to enter their symptoms into the app, it will then consult a large medical database and users will receive tailored responses based on the information they've entered.
Image Recognition, Processing and Diagnostics
On an average, it takes about 19 million images of cats for the current Deep Learning algorithms to recognize an image of a cat, unaided. Compared to the progress of Natural Language Processing solutions, Computer Vision based AI solutions are still in developmental stage, primarily due to the lack of large, structured data sets and the significant amount of computational power required to train the algorithms.
Having said that, we are already witnessing adoption of image recognition in healthcare and financial services sectors:
Zebra Medical Systems, an Israeli company that deep learning techniques to the field of radiology. It has amassed a huge training set of medical images along with categorization technology that will allow computers to predict multiple diseases with better-than-human accuracy.
The Chinese technology giants Alipay (mobile payments arm of Alibaba) and WeChat Pay (mobile payments arm of Tencent) use advanced mobile-based image and facial recognition techniques for loan disbursement, financing, insurance claims authentication, fraud management and credit history ratings of both retail and enterprise customers.
General Electric (GE) is an example of a large multi-faceted conglomerate that has adopted AI and ML successfully at a large scale, across various functions, to evolve from industrial and consumer products and financial services firm to a “digital industrial” company with a strong focus on the “Industrial Internet”. GE uses machine-learning approaches to predict required maintenance for its large industrial machines. The company achieves this by continuously monitoring and learning from new data of its machines “digital twins” (a digital, cloud-based replica of its actual machines in the field) and modifying predictive models over time. Beyond, industrial equipment, the company has also used AI and ML effectively for integrating business data. GE used machine-learning software to identify and normalize differential pricing in its supplier data across business verticals, leading to a savings of USD 80 million.
GE’s successful acquisition and integration of innovative AI startups such as “SmartSignal” (acquired in 2011) to provide supervised learning models for remote diagnostics, “Wise.io” (acquihired in 2106) for unsupervised deep learning capabilities and its in-house the data scientists, and of “Bit Stew” (another 2016 acquisition) to integrate data from multiple sensor sources in industrial equipment has enabled the company to evolve as a leading conglomerate being in the Artificial Intelligence business.
Industry Sector-wise Adoption of AI
Technology giants and digital natives are investing in and deploying the technology at scale, but widespread adoption among less digitally mature sectors and companies is lagging. However, the current mismatch between AI investment and adoption has not stopped people from imagining a future where AI transforms businesses and entire industries.
Industry sector-by-sector adoption of AI is highly uneven currently, reflecting many characteristics of digital adoption on a broader scale. According to McKinsey Global Index survey, larger companies and industries that adopted digital technologies in the past are more likely to adopt AI. For them, AI is the next wave. Outside of digital technologies-led industries such as Internet and IT, which are early adopters and proponents of various AI technologies, Banks, Financial Services and Healthcare are the leading non-core technology verticals that are adopting AI.
Impact Potential of AI & ML Across Industries & Use Cases
Source: McKinsey - The Age of Analytics Report, Dec 2016
As per a recent McKinsey Global Index survey results and analysis, there is clear evidence that early AI adopters are driven to employ AI solutions in order to grow revenue and market share, and the potential for cost reduction is a secondary idea.
AI can go beyond changing business processes to changing entire business models with winner-take-all dynamics, and companies that wait for the AI dust to settle risk being left behind. Companies of every size, now must grapple with how AI will affect and possibly eliminate their sector, and how they can adapt and leverage AI and ML to disrupt themselves before they get disrupted.
This Research and Analyst Note has been originally published in Mint on 24th July, 2017.
This is an excerpt from Convergence Catalyst's industry research report titled "Key Trends in Artificial Intelligence and Companies' Readiness Mandate", released in June, 2017.